IF I REALLY WANT TO GROW
I have to crack thru my walls
PREVIOUS: Disorders #4a
3. PERSONALITY DISORDERS (PDs) (cont.)
The Five Factor Model (FFM) groups human characteristics into:
1. Conscientiousness – re. dependability
2. Neuroticism – re. emotional stability
3. Agreeableness – re. sociability
4. Extroversion – re. hi levels of positive emotions
5. Openness – re. Intellect (MORE…. includes extensive assessments)
SIDEBAR: A study of 468 young adults at risk for becoming alcoholics used a questionnaire based on the FFM. It was designed to correlate: risk for alcoholism, alcohol use disorder, & alcoholism subtyping . Some results:
• Familial risk for alcoholism was positively associated with openness, and negatively associated with agreeableness & conscientiousness.
• Alcohol use disorders were positively associated with neuroticism, and negatively associated with agreeableness & conscientiousness.
With the exceptions of family alcoholism, & a dual diagnosis with Antisocial PD • all the alcoholic subtypes examined related to at least one of the 5 FFM.
E.M.Jellinek’s (1960) 5 SUBTYPES of alcoholism :
ALPHA : Based in mental & emotional problems, it’s drinking to drive away depression, stress, or anxiety
BETA: almost daily heavy drinkers, leading to various physical & psychological symptoms
GAMMA: sudden cravings for alcohol after 1 or 2 episode of ‘social drinking’, becomes continual drinking, drunkenness & full-fledged alcoholism
DELTA: the habit of drinking small amounts throughout the day, without ever really getting drunk. Like Gamma, but with inability to abstain, instead of loss of control
EPSILON: ‘periodic’ – drinking at regular intervals until they pass out completely – called dipsomania, but being sober more often than drunk
ALSO: 5 types of alcoholics, re. ‘Progressive Symptoms‘
Research has shown that environmental, genetic, pre-natal factors, as well as unhealthy parenting (not affectionate + harshness) all contribute to developing PDs
⏬ Re. the FFM – the extreme reverse of the characteristics identify PATHOLOGY:
1. DIS-INHIBITION (negative of conscientiousness):
Distractible / Impulsive /Irresponsible /Rigid perfectionism / Risk taking
2. NEGATIVE AFFECT (negative of emotional stability):
Anxious / Emotionally over-reactive w/ mood swings & persistent taking or movement / Hostile / Submissive / Separation anxiety
3. ANTAGONISM (negative of agreeableness):
Attention seeking / Callous / Deceitful / Grandiose / Hostile / Manipulative
4. DETACHMENT (negative of extroversion):
Avoiding intimacy / Depressed – long term / Lack of enjoyment / Limited emotional range / Suspicion-paranoia / Withdrawal
5. PSYCHOTISM (negative of mental lucidity):
Eccentricity / Unusual-unrealistic beliefs & experiences
PDs & DEFENSES
✥ PDs are the result of combining continual abuse & neglect in childhood, with the hardening of defenses developed as protection. The type of disorder formed will depend on the interaction between each person’s native personality (including inherited qualities) ➕ the severity of the early abuse ➕ the broader environment which determines a person’s life & growth options.
In the present – staying entrenched in defenses means the walls of the castle are high, the gate is up & the alligators are in the moat. This makes it very unlikely you can take in another point of view – which is all that matters to you – (such as aBR), to keep everyone from adding to your vast pile of insecurities.
Where are your INNER archers & guys with the vats of boiling oil?
NEGATIVE Toxic Beliefs locks us inside our armor, keeping us from being flexible in our thinking or adaptable in our actions. They lead to a defensive stance in life, as a dysfunctional way of protecting ourselves.
The following list is similar to the one in Part 4a, but here it’s referring to core statements which are each type’s defense (7 out of the 10 PDs, including defensive statements, as well as healing goals for each)
AVOIDER: “I don’t want to be hurt, ever, because I can’t bear it”
BORDERLINE: “No one is allowed to leave me, no matter how much I mistreat them”
DEPENDENT: “Please take care of me”
HYSTERICAL: “Please pay attention to me”
NARCISSIST: “Please help me achieve success because I’m special”
OCD : “I act right & the world would be a better place if everyone else did too
PARANOID: “It’s important to keep myself safe – people are not trustworthy & the world is dangerous” (MORE – scroll down ….)
►Each PD can use one or more Defense Mechanisms to maintain their False Self pattern.
EXP: Narcissistic & Anti-social PDs share minor image-distorting defenses – such as Omnipotence or Devaluation, while NPD also uses Splitting of self-images, & A-S PD uses disavowal defenses like Denial.
— Borderline PD is strongly associated with major image-distorting defenses, mainly Splitting of self & other’s images, as well as the hysterical level defenses of Dissociation &